The set of principles to be adopted upon designing the data structure:



1. Data management is a joint responsibility

Principle
Fulfilling the establishment’s objective is the responsibility of all units involved in the decision-making process, including the IT department. To do so, information should be provided by the concerned units to the units authorized to use such information.
Rationale
Information users are the basic beneficiaries from the applications, helping them do their businesses. To ensure that the IT department will work on this, all units of the establishment should be engaged in all aspects of the information environment. In addition, the managerial and technical experts in the establishment as well as the technical team of the information environment should work as a one team to achieve the IT objectives.
Impact
Build a solid information environment and provide better services.
Source
Best experiences and practices.





2. Emphasize data sharing

Principle
Government information and data represents a national resource which should be developed by the public entities. It is also important to provide the necessary data to enable the users to access the data they need. This requires sharing data at all levels of the establishment.
Legal basis / Rationale
Article 1 of e-Government Implementation Rules, issued by the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 40 dated 27/2/1427 Hijri corresponding to 27/3/2006.
Access to real-time data is critical in the effective decision-making process, as providing accurate and updated data through a single application allows everyone to access such data rather than replicating the data in several applications.
Impact
Data will be available to all users. This will ensure providing them with accurate data upon making any decision. However, the principle of data protection and data leakage prevention should be recognized.
Source
Decision of the Council of Ministers and best experiences and practices





3. Classify the information and data by the concerned entity

Principle
Government entities will classify their information and data according to unified levels and guiding specifications to be developed by the E-government Transaction Program.
Legal basis
Article 2 of e-Government Implementation Rules, issued by the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 40 dated 27/2/1427 Hijri corresponding to 27/3/2006.
Impact
Source
Decision of the Council of Ministers





4. Avoid duplication in data

Principle
Each public entity should avoid duplicated databases. The Program, in coordination with other public entities, works on integrating information and data, so that there will be one entity responsible for maintaining the same type of information and data in order to avoid duplication, conflict, and multiple sources of information and data. However, it is important to have a backup for each database.
Moreover, each public entity has to depend electronically on the information and data available at the concerned entities; reduce the amount of information and data needed on the government service forms; and avoid asking for information or data from the customers unless necessary.
Legal basis
Article 4 of e-Government Implementation Rules, issued by the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 40 dated 27/2/1427 Hijri corresponding to 27/3/2006.
Article 7 of e-Government Implementation Rules, issued by the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 40 dated 27/2/1427 Hijri corresponding to 27/3/2006.
Impact
For each type of data, there will be one entity responsible for maintaining the related information and data.
Source
Decision of the Council of Ministers.





5. Data consistency

Principle
Data should be defined consistently throughout the establishment, so that it will be understandable and available for all applications and systems needed to conduct the work.
Rationale
It is important to develop a joint definition for the data to be used in developing the applications so that they can be shared with the different units of the establishment. Unified terms facilitate effective communication among the staff, and they are necessary to link systems and share data among them.
Impact
These unified terms will be used throughout the establishment, and it is important to avoid any potential ambiguity due to using multiple terms. It is necessary to take the initiative to unify and define the terms as agreed by all units.
Source
Best experiences and practices





6. Data protection

Principle
It is important to protect data and prevent data leakage.
Legal basis/ Rationale
Article 8 of e-Government Implementation Rules, issued by the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 40 dated 27/2/1427 Hijri corresponding to 27/3/2006.
It is important to strike a balance between sharing data and information, and limitations necessary to protect sensitive and confidential data. Moreover, it is necessary to comply with privacy rule, and customer data and information may only be reviewed by the concerned staff. The public entities will ensure customer privacy.
Impact
Access to data should be granted according to the user real needs. This will be done by reviewing data security classification regularly. Due to the costs related to manage unclassified data, efforts should be made to classify such data. Security classification of data should be considered from the beginning in order to protect systems and data against leakage and manipulation.
Source
Decision of the Council of Ministers and best experiences and practices